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India is a federal constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
It is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India.) is a Persian name for India dating back to the 3rd century B. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety.By this time, with its economic power severely curtailed by the British parliament and itself effectively made an arm of British administration, the company began to more consciously enter non-economic arenas such as education, social reform, and culture.The British Indian Empire, from the 1909 edition of The Imperial Gazetteer of India.Indian merchants, scholars, and sometimes armies were involved in this transmission; South-East Asians took the initiative as well, with many sojourning in Indian seminaries and translating Buddhist and Hindu texts into their languages.After the 10th century, Muslim Central Asian nomadic clans, using swift-horse cavalry and raising vast armies united by ethnicity and religion, repeatedly overran South Asia's north-western plains, leading eventually to the establishment of the Islamic Delhi Sultanate in 1206.In 2015, the Indian economy was the world's seventh largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity.
Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country.
The sultanate was to control much of North India, and to make many forays into South India.
Although at first disruptive for the Indian elites, the sultanate largely left its vast non-Muslim subject population to its own laws and customs.
Early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires; in southern India, the Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia.
In the medieval era, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and Islam arrived in India, and Sikhism emerged, all adding to India's diverse culture.
In the mid-18th century, India came under British East India Company rule, and in the mid-19th under British crown rule.