Dating with inflammatory bowel disease
Detrimental changes in the intestinal microbiota induce an inappropriate (uncontrolled) immune response that results in damage to the intestinal epithelium.
The diagnosis is usually confirmed by biopsies on colonoscopy.Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are the principal types of inflammatory bowel disease.It is important to note that not only does Crohn's disease affect the small intestine and large intestine, it can also affect the mouth, esophagus, stomach and the anus whereas ulcerative colitis primarily affects the colon and the rectum.Conditions with similar symptoms as Crohn's disease includes intestinal tuberculosis, Behçet’s disease, ulcerative colitis, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug enteropathy, irritable bowel syndrome and celiac disease.Conditions with similar symptoms as ulcerative colitis includes acute self-limiting colitis, amebic colitis, schistosomiasis, Crohn's disease, colon cancer, irritable bowel syndrome, intestinal tuberculosis and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug enteropathy.Ulcerative colitis, in contrast, is restricted to the colon and the rectum.
Microscopically, ulcerative colitis is restricted to the mucosa (epithelial lining of the gut), while Crohn's disease affects the full thickness of the bowel wall ("transmural lesions").
The chief types of inflammatory bowel disease are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC).
Inflammatory bowel diseases fall into the class of autoimmune diseases, in which the body's own immune system attacks elements of the digestive system.
These 163 loci explain from an 8.2% to a 13.6% of variance in Crohn's disease and 4.1% to 7.5% in ulcerative colitis. The functional enrichment analysis of this group of genes using gene ontology showed that there are many genes related with cytokine production, lymphocyte activation and the response to bacterial infection.
In an effort to identify likely causal genes, a probabilistic causal gene network was constructed.
However, ulcerative colitis can in most cases be cured by proctocolectomy, although this may not eliminate extra-intestinal symptoms. Alternatively, a pouch can be created from the small intestine; this serves as the rectum and prevents the need for a permanent ileostomy.